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Full text of "Annual report of the Westboro School Department"

«3 



R 



EPORT OF THE 



"®^ 



School Committee 



OF THE 



Town of Westborough, flass 



t^L 



1893 



3^ 



WESTBOROUGH, MASS . 

Cbronotgpe JBoofc an£> $ob {print. 

1893. 



\eport of ^cqooI vOommittee, 



To the Citizens of Westboro : 

In accordance with the sentiment of the town, emphatically ex- 
pressed a year ago, in favor of skilled and thorough supervision of 
our schools, — such as had not been provided them since the expira- 
tion of Superintendent Burner's term of service in 1886, — for which 
a special appropriation was granted, we, early in the year, gave our 
attention to this subject, and in April secured the services of True 

W. White as superintendent. His whole time was given to the work 
during the remaining weeks of the spring term. Beginning with 
the present school year he has divided his time between the schools 
of Westboro and Lancaster, each receiving his attention during al- 
ternate weeks. While, obviously, this is not an ideal arrangement, 
yet it is unquestionably a vast improvement upon any adopted in 
this important department of school work since the time referred to 
above, and its results are thus far such as easily to persuade us of 
the advisability of continuing the same ; although, did the present 
outlook of affairs in this community seem to warrant such a course, — 
which unfortunately is not the case, — we would gladly urge the 
granting of such a sum, to be expended for superintendence, as 
would secure to our schools the undivided time and attention of a 
competent man. 

We herewith present our financial statement and the Superintend- 
ent's detailed report, to which we would call your especial attention, 
as setting forth the present condition and needs of the schools and in- 



2 



dicating to some extent the character of school work being done by 
him on its formerly much neglected educational side. 

Our estimates for the coming year are as follows : 

Salary list, $10,450 00 

Conveying pupils and teachers 450 00 

Fuel, 850 00 

Janitorship, 700 00 

Total, $12,450 00 

Incidentals, 2,000 00 

Superintendence, 1,000 00 

Total, . . . . $3,000 00 

We therefore ask for an appropriation for school purposes of 
$12,450.00; and for incidentals of $3,000.00. 



L. E. DENFELD, 
GEO. H. HERO, 
D. P. CILLEY, 

School Committee. 



,xp 



ense 



Occount. 



Orders to pay teachers $11,120 28 

Adams Express Co. , supplies 8 50 

Allyn & Bacon, supplies 15 63 

American Book Co. , supplies 12 50 

Babb, Edw. E. & Co., supplies 73 83 

Beaman, Ira M. , printing 21 95 

Boston School Supply Co. , supplies 16 70 

Braley, W. B. , cleaning vault 5 00 

Brown, E. F., teams for drawing teacher. ... 11 00 

Collins, W. E. , carrying pupils 70 00 

Denfeld, L. E., supplies 35 00 

Ditson, Oliver & Co., supplies 6 81 

Dwinnell, E. H., carrying pupils 219 00 

Edmands, A. G.. janitor, No. 6 30 25 

Effingham, Maynard & Co. , supplies 7 20 

Fayerweather, J. A. , insurance 77 30 

Fay, John G., fuel 11 30 

Forbush, A. B., fuel 6 00 

Frost, C. B. & Co. , supplies and repairs 4 47 

Gates, J. S. , supplies and repairs 30 81 

Gilmore, E. T., water commissioner, Jan. 1, 

1892, to Jan. 1, 1893 55 00 

Gilmore, H. A., repairs and supplies 57 25 

' ' truant officer 50 00 

annual cleaning 50 00 

janitor 550 00 

Ginn & Co., supplies Ill 93 

Goodell, D. H., fuel 30 00 

Greely, The E. S. Co., fuel 10 84 

Amount carried forward, $12,700 55 



Amount brought forward, §12,700 55 

Hammett, J. L. , supplies 184 22 

Hamilton, Chas., printing 2 50 

Harrington, C. A., repairs 11 79 

Haskell, F. A. , janitor 11 00 

Heath, D. C. & Co.. supplies 3 10 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., supplies 2 59 

Interstate Publishing Co., supplies 7 50 

King, Geo. F. , & Merrill, supplies 75 

Kimball, H. W., fuel 712 15 

Kendall, O. S., supplies 20 10 

Lee & Shepard, supplies 21 25 

Leet, Hattie L. , janitor and cleaning 32 50 

Longley, A E. & Co., supplies 7 32 

Lovell, A. , supplies 10 20 

Marshall, E. L., removing ashes and labor. . . 22 50 

McKenna, S., janitor 27 00 

Misener, M. W. , supplies ... 11 50 

Nason, J. S., fuel 10 25 

New England Puplishing Co., supplies 11 25 

Newton, Lottie M., fuel and supplies 16 50 

Newton, Warren, fuel and repairs 30 50 

Newton, A. H., teams, music teacher 12 00 

Nourse, B. B. , repairs 11 15 

Penniman, W. C, repairs and setting up stage 46 65 

Perry, Geo. S. , supplies 209 55 

Pierce, N. M. , repairs : 3 00 

Prang Educational Co. . supplies 106 24 

Rice, Sarah H. , janitor 26 25 

' ' repairs and supplies 1 97 

Robinson, A. A. , fuel 20 00 

Schoenhof, Carl, supplies 14 14 

Silver, Burdett & Co. , supplies 197 74 

Smith, J. S., painting 141 49 

Teasdale, W. J. , cartage 5 03 

Tewksbury, Geo. M., care of clocks 31 50 

Thayer, A. W., piano 100 00 

" graduating exercises 23 56 

Amount carried forward, $14,807 29 



Amount brought forward, $14,807 29 

Thayer A. W., Teachers' institute, dinner... 6 92 

Thompson, Brown & Co. , supplies 30 00 

University Publishing Co. , supplies 59 42 

Ware & Newton, teams, music teacher, &c. . . 13 90 

Ward, Samuel, programmes 22 00 

Warren, Se]eucus, fuel 15 00 

Whitney, C. & Co., repairs 40 39 

White, True W., supplies 5 52 

" superintendence 833 33 

Wilson, A. P. , clerical work 25 00 

Woodman, Geo. H. & Co., repairs ....,, 189 74 



$16,048 51 



Financial Statement for the Year 1892. 

Dr. 

To appropriation for schools for 1892 $12,350 00 

Income from school fund 184 64 

Received for tuition 21 15 

'■ §12,555 T£ 

Cr. 

By orders to pay teachers $11,120 28 

1 ' for carrying pupils . . 325 5t> 

for fuel 832 80 

"" to pay janitors 686 50 

12,965 08 

Deficit 409 29 



,$12,555 79 

school incidentals. 

Dr. 

To appropriations $3,000 00 

Special appropriation for piano 100 00 

Premium on insurance 8 50 

Sale of lamps 6 70 

Sale of books 5 98 

$3,121 18 



6 



Cr. 

Orders to pay for books and supplies $1,269 35 

11 " repairs 59117 

11 superintendence 833 33 

" sundry bills 389 58 

3,083 43 

Unexpended balance 37 75 



$3,121 18 
Amount overdrawn in 1892, §371.54 

L. E. DENFELD, 
GEO. H. HERO, 
D. P. CILLEY. 

School Committee. 



Westboro, Feb. 16, 1893. 

We have examined the account of the School Com- 
mittee, and find it properly vouched and correctly cast. 

J. S. GATES, 

H. W. KIMBALL, 

Auditors. 



(teachers and 



anes 



SCHOOL. 

High School. 



Grammar. 

Grade YIII. 
" VII. 
" VI. 

Grade V. 

Phillips St. 
Grade V. 
Grove St. 

Grade IV. 

Philllips St. 

Grades III & IV. 
High St. 

Grade III. 

Phillips St. 

Grade H. 

Grove St. 

Grades I & II. 
High St. 

Grade I. Grove 
St. 1st floor. 

Grade I. Grove 
St. 2d floor. 



Dist. No 



Music. 



Drawing. 
Superintend- 
ence. 



TEACHERS. YEARLY SALARY. 

Mr. A. W. Thayer $1,400 00 

Miss Etta Thomas 550 00 

Miss Delia Thomas, Winter and Spring term. 500 00 

Miss Genevra Gwynn, Fall term 550 00 

Mr. H. E. Loring, Winter and Spring term . . 800 00 

Miss Eliza M. Taylor, Fall term 600 00 

Mrs. N. M. Crowell, 500 00 

Miss Emma J. Putnam 450 00 

Miss Emma L. Denfeld 400 00 

Miss E. M. Woods, Winter and Spring term 400 00 

Miss Maude A. Gilmore, Fall term 400 00 

) Miss Maude A. Gilmore, Winter and Spring . . 400 00 

[ Miss Annie E. Fales, Fall term 400 00 

[Miss Louise E. Forbes 400 00 

[ Miss Inez B. Watkins 400 00 

[Miss Lucy J. Pond 400 00 

'Miss Mattie L. Fisher 400 00 

[Miss Sadie D. Rice 400 00 

) Miss Maude L. Emery, Winter and Spring. . . 400 00 

\ Miss Susie A. McKenna, Fall term 400 00 

Miss Annie E. Fales, Winter and Spring 400 00 

Miss Maude L. Emery, Fall term 400 00 

Miss Amy M. Aldrich, Winter and Spring. . . 300 00 

Miss Susie A. McKenna, Winter and Spring. 300 00 

Miss Hattie B. Teasdale, Fall term 300 00 

Mrs. S. H. Rice 350 00 

Miss A. Gertrude Edmands 300 00 

Miss Hattie E. Henry 300 00 

Miss Alice Gilmore ... 300 00 

Mr. J. H. Staples, per week, Winter term. . . 10 00 

Mr. M. W. Misener, per visit, Spring and Fall 10 00 

Miss Nellie T. Mahoney, per week 12 00 

Mr. True W. White, part of Spring term. . . . 1,200 00 

Fall term 1,000 00 



ions. 



ADMISSIONS. 

Pupils shall not be admitted to the graded schools above the first- 
grade without a permit from the Superintendent, who shall examine 
them with reference to classification. 

SESSIONS. 

There will be one session in the High School, beginning at 8.30 
o'clock and closing at 1.30 o'clock. There will be two sessions in the 
remaining schools. The morning session shall commence promptly 
at 9 o'clock, and close promptly at 12. The afternoon session in the 
graded schools shall commence at 1.30, and shall close at 3.30. The 
work of the day shall be arranged on a basis of five hours, three in 
the morning and two in the afternoon session. Pupils whose deport- 
ment for the day has been good, and who have performed the work 
assigned for both sessions in a manner satisfactory to their teachers, 
shall be dismissed in the afternoon at 3. 30 o'clock. Other pupils shall 
remain for discipline, or for study and instruction, till 4 o'clock, or 
for such portion of the half hour as the teacher shall require. In 
the ungraded schools this schedule may be varied, with the approval 
of the Superintendent. 

RECESS. 

All pupils shall be allowed a recess during the morning session for 
such length of time, not exceeding fifteen nor less than five minutes, 
as the teacher may direct. Pupils in the first and second grades shall 
also have an afternoon recess of not more than ten nor less than five 
minutes. 

Pupils must be allowed to leave the room on request; but at the 
discretion of the teacher, they may be required to make up the time 
so taken. 



ROLL-CALL. 

Three minutes before the appointed time for commencing each ses- 
sion the pupils shall be called in, and precisely at the appointed hour 
the roll shall be called. No pupil shall be allowed to enter the room 
during the roll call or the devotional exercises. Pupils not present 
at roll-call will be marked absent, and those coming in late, missing 
the roll call, will be marked present and tardy. 

Teachers are required to be in their respective school-rooms at least 
fifteen minutes before the morning session, and ten before the after- 
noon session. 

ABSENCES. 

In all cases of absence, tardiness, or dismissal, a satisfactory ex- 
cuse shall be required. If such excuse does not readily appear, the 
teacher shall inform the parent or guardian, and in troublesome cases 
shall notify the Superintendent. 

SUSPENSIONS. 

No teacher shall suspend a pupil without having called the atten- 
tion of the Superintendent to his conduct and having previously 
consulted his parents ; except in case of open and violent opposition 
to authority, or on account of some gross immorality. Upon sus- 
pension of any pupil the teacher shall immediately inform the Super- 
intendent, also the parents, giving to them his reasons for the suspen- 
sion. Any pupil having been suspended cannot be re-admitted, nor 
admitted to any other school, without permission of the Superin- 
tendent. 

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT. 

Any teacher using physical force on a pupil shall at once send to 
the Superintendent a written account of the punishment and its 
cause. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Regular promotions are made at the end of the spring term, and 
early in the winter term. Pupils may also at any time apply to the 
Superintendent for promotion, and if found qualified may be pro- 
moted to a higher class. 



10 



MESSAGES AND ERRANDS. 

Teachers shall not send pupils with messages or on errands during; 
school hours, except on school business or in case of urgent neces- 
sity. 

SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Teachers will be held responsible for the care of school property, 
and for the order in and about the school building. They shall re- 
port to the Superintendent all injuries to the school property, and, if 
possible, the name of the perpetrator, who will be held responsible 
for all damage. 

IN GENERAL. 

The commencement of the morning exercises in the schools shall 
include the reading of some portion of the Bible without comment;, 
but no pupil shall be required to read therefrom whose parent or 
guardian shall notify the teacher that he has conscientious scruples 
against such reading. 

Teachers must exercise a general supervision over their pupils, not 
only while in school and on school grounds, but while coming to and 
returning from school. They must exert their influence to prevent 
quarrelling and disagreements, rude and noisy behavior in the 
streets, vulgar and profane language, and disrespect to citizens and 
strangers. 

MEMORIAL DAY, 

The whole or a part of the last school session preceding Memorial 
Day shall be given to patriotic exercises tending to recall the services 
of the soldiers of the republic, and to cultivate feelings of love and 
devotion for our country. 



11 



I \eport of Superintendent 



To the School Committee : 

In the beginning of my first annual report as Superintendent of 
Schools in Westborough, I desire to acknowledge gratefully the per- 
sonal kindness of the gentlemen of the Committee, the confidence 
and co-operation of all the teachers, and the intelligent sympathy and 
suggestions of many patrons of the schools. The progress that I be 
lieve to have been made is due very largely to these causes. 

COURSE OF STUDIES. 

Coming here in April, after the opening of the spring term, I 
found that the most imperative need was a graded course of studies. 
The teachers were laboring earnestly, but in many cases without- 
much knowledge of what was done before or would be done after 
them. For instance, certain facts in English were being "taught" in 
each grade from the fourth to the ninth, while in the High School 
many of the pupils were not sure about these same facts, but only 
sure that they were tired of the whole matter. The need was for a 
permanent schedule, defining the amount, and to a limited extent 
the method of each subject taught. The making of such a course is 
recognized as one of the most responsible duties of a school officer. 
A large part of the spring and summer was devoted by me to this 
work. Step by step, comparing the published courses of many of 
the best school systems, and consulting often with the teachers as to 
what they were doing and what they thought they could do, I con- 
structed an outline of work, differing from the work previously being 
done in each grade, only where a change seemed necessary in order 
to preserve a due proportion of the several subjects throughout the 



12 



course. This outline was given to the teachers in the fall. After a 
half-year's trial, a few slight changes have been made. It is hoped 
that this course of studies, substantially as it now stands, will serve 
as a guide for a considerable time. Detailed directions as to the 
method of presenting the different subjects are generally not given, 
because of the belief that what would thus be gained in uniformity 
would be lost in the enthusiastic individuality of the teacher. "Nat- 
ural Science" has received little space, not from neglect, but simply 
because of inability at this time to arrange an outline that would be 
practicable in our schools. The subject is receiving much attention 
throughout the state, and by experimenting ourselves and observing 
what others are doing, by another year we shall probably have 
something more definite. ' 'English Language" is perhaps the most 
important subject in the whole course, and it is certainly the one 
that has been most disastrously neglected in the past. The outline 
here is not satisfactorily complete, partly because we have not yet 
found a text-book that fully comes up to our requirements. We 
hope to make special progress in this line. It will be noticed that 
technical Grammar is to be omitted until the eighth grade, when it 
will be taken up in earnest. I am confident that this is right, and 
the same change appears in the course of studies recently published 
by the state Board of Education. 

THE TEACHERS. 

It is doubtful if any town in the state can show a more industri- 
ous, devoted and public spirited corps of teachers than Westborough. 
A town is fortunate when this spirit prevails. It is fortunate, too, 
when teachers appreciate that they are working for the whole town 
rather than for their own room alone, and, from a selfish standpoint, 
that their own welfare will be promoted by the increased excellence 
of the system as a whole. When this is understood and felt — as it 
largely is here — there will be nothing of petty jealousy possible, but 
only the spirit of mutual sympathy and helpfulness. Our teachers are 
mostly persons either with professional training or with long, success- 
ful experience. Neither of these classes has the "know it all" quality 
that precludes improvement. The few teachers without training or 
much experience, mostly recent graduates of our own High school, 
are doing comparatively good work. The most serious obstacle to 
the early success of young teachers seems to be the failure to appre- 



1 



ciate that school teaching is a profession — a profession of tremendous 
responsibility and of unlimited opportunities — that teachers are prac- 
tically made, not born, and that real, eminent success can be attained 
■only by continued work, with the help of every means of improve- 
ment that can be found. During the summer vacation three new 
teachers were engaged : Miss Genevra Gwynn. from Syracuse uni- 
versity, for the High school ; Miss Eliza M. Taylor, from Pepperell, 
for the Grammar school, and Miss Hattie B. Teasdale, from Smith 
college, W. H. S. , '91, for the Flanders district. These three form a 
valuable addition to the force, and are proving the wisdom of the 
judgment of the Committee. 

There is one long-established custom in the town that seems wrong 
in theory and injurious in results. That is, the custom of transfer- 
ring, or '-promoting," a teacher from one school to another several 
grades higher. If a teacher proved a failure in one position, and the 
Committee wished to give her another chance, she might try a dif- 
ferent grade; or a popular teacher might rjroperly advance a grade 
at the end of the year, so as to remain with the same class of pupils ; 
but for a teacher, who has learned to teach one grade successfully, to 
skip to another where the methods are entirely different, is as poor 
economy as for a man who has learned shoemaking well to try hat- 
ting. The proved success is given up for an uncertain possibility ; 
and, at the best, time will be required to learn the new work. The 
fault lies partly with the teachers, partly with the recognized system. 
More than one teacher has iold me that she had accepted a low 
grade position simply because she supposed it to be the only way 
to get into a higher grade Now, as a matter of fact, the very great- 
est possibilities for skilful work are to be found in the primary 
schools. Fortunately several teachers in town have declined to be 
''promoted." It may be stated as an indisputable fact that a given 
person is naturally fitted to teach one grade bettei than any other. I 
would advise any one wishing to become a teacher, first to determine 
the grade she wished to teach, then, having prepared herself as well 
as possible, to teach only that grade or one very near it, even if she 
has to make considerable sacrifice in so doing. There will always be 
a chance for a specialist. On the part of the school officers the sys 
tern of "promoting" probably rose from the just desire to recognize 
faithful and successful work ; but it would be more advantageous 
both to the teachers and to the schools to let them try in the begin 



14 



Hing work suited and agreeable to them, first for small remuneration, 
and then to reward increasing worth by increased salary. 

COLUMBUS DAY. 

In accordance with the proclamation of the President of the 
United States and the judgment of the school officials, the pupils of 
Westborough took a very prominent part in the celebration, Oct. 21st 
of the discovery of America. In the morning, or on the afternoon 
before, exercises were held in the several schools, and were generally 
attended by parents and friends. New flags were raised in the 
Phillips street and in the Grove street yards, the pole for the former 
being donated by Mr. Charles M. Fay. 

At 10.30 a. m., the pupils, led by the Westborough band, the Grand 
Army post and other village organizations under the direction of 
Commander Charles Drayton, marched through the principal streets 
to the High school yard. Here an interesting program was pre- 
sented, including singing by the High school and by the combined 
schools, prayer, a poem read by Miss Lucy H. Putnam and a decla- 
mation by Mr. Burtis J. Teasdale. In the afternoon the school-boys 
held field-day contests on the fair grounds, the use of the grounds 
being generously donated by the Agricultural Society. At the citi- 
zens' meeting in the evening Miss Agnes O. Brigham and Mr 
Percy I. Taylor read original prize essays. The expenses of the 
celebration were met by a subscription of citizens. 

The appearance and behavior of our 700 pupils, both in the pro- 
cession and at the High school grounds, was fine, and was appre- 
ciated by thousands of spectators. The children themselves will 
remember the occasion as a red letter day, and, although considera- 
ble attention was taken from regular school work, we cannot help 
believing that it was profitably devoted to patriotic and moral 
training. 

PROMOTIONS. 

As early as 1878, Mr. Whittemore in his annual report called atten- 
tion to the advanced age at which pupils completed the school course 
in Westborough, and proposed that promotions be made as often as 
once a year. This would provide for a pupil entering school at five 
years of age, to leave the Grammar school when fourteen years old. 



15 



But so many extra subjects have been crowded into the course in or- 
der to keep pace with the requirements of modern life, that very 
many pupils have been obliged to repeat certain years' work, and it 
has come to be the exception for a pupil to complete the common 
school course within the nominal time of nine years. The average / 
age of the class admitted to the High school last June was fifteen 
years and five months. 

This is evidently wrong. If the pupil is to keep on for High school 
and professional study, he wishes to save all the time that he profit- 
ably can ; and if, as so many are obliged to do, he leaves school at 
the age of fourteen, he certainly ought to have had the framing of 
the higher grammar grades, instead of having reached only the sev- 
enth or sixth, or even only the fourth grade. 

The same difficulty is found in other cities and towns having graded 
schools. The Association of New England Superintendents have been 
and are preparing elaborate statistics setting forth the too great age 
of pupils in the grammar grade. Dr. E. E. White, lately Superin- 
tendent of Schools at Cincinnati, powerfully presented the case in a 
pamphlet published by the National Bureau of Education, and he 
argues convincingly that the only just way is to allow pupils to ad- 
vance as rapidly as their ambition and ability allow, or as slowly as 
their sluggishness or ill health compel. Promotions should occur 
whenever pupils have completed a given grade's work — at the end of 
six months, a year or a year and a half. It is a sin for a bright, in 
dustrious child to be forced to wait for a dull or a lazy one. A pupil 
who is obliged by illness or ot'ier cause to review a part of a year's 
work should not be forced to spend a whole year on what he might 
do in a quarter or a half of a year. Such time is not merely wasted — 
it is worse than wasted ; for the interest and the habit of attention 
and industry are seriously impaired. 

By promoting in the middle of the year such pupils as have fairly 
completed the grade's work, the evil of the graded system is reduced 
very much. As the pupils in graded schools are usually taught in 
two or more divisions, this can be done without seriously adding to 
the labor of the teachers. The plan was presented to our teachers 
last fall and they cordially consented to a trial. On Jan. 23d, when 
the school year was half done, seventy-two pupils were promoted. 
Most of these were in the lower grades. At the present time nearly 
every case is doing good work and giving indication of the wisdom 



[6 



of tlu> action. Suppose sixty of the seventy-two are able to keep up 
with the work ; that means sixty years saved in school life and sixty 
years more to be devoted to real life-work. The influence, also, has 
been to increase tremendously the ambition of the pupils. Provided 
each parent will watch carefully the health of his child and not al- 
low overwork (a danger that is real but not alarming), we confident 
1}' believe that this will prove a vast improvement over the old system 
of regular yearly promotions. 

The question whether a given pupil shall be promoted is usually 
decided by the teacher, and depends on her general estimate of work 
done. In doubtful cases, however, the Superintendent gives a 
special examination, and decides from the result of this, in connec- 
tion with the teacher's more minute knowledge of the child. This 
serves both to confirm the teacher's judgment, and to relieve the 
teacher from any possible danger of criticism. 

THE SCHOOL SAVINGS BANK 

Went into operation on the 2d of last January. So far as we know. 
Westborough is third town in the state where the system has been 
adopted. The favor with which it is being met is shown by the fact 
that more than 400 pupils made deposits during January. These pu- 
pils represent in nearly the same proportion all grades from the first 
primary and the smallest "district" to the High school. The total 
amount of deposits for the month was $389.92. The smallest amount 
by one depositor was $.01, the largest $10.00. The anticipation of 
a falling off of interest after the noveltly was past has not yet been 
realized; the last deposit of the month was larger than any preceding: 



The accounts are very carefully verified each week and at the end 
of the month, by the teachers, at the bank, and at the Superintend- 
ent's office, so that any loss or undiscovered error seems practically 
impossible. The time taken by the schools is from five to twenty 
minutes each Monday morning. Perhaps as much more outside 
time of the teachers is required, and this is given cheerfully, I think, 
in every case. Acknowledgement is due to Mr. Brigham and Miss 
Brigham for their willing assistance; for, of course, the direct profit 
to the savings bank does not nearly pay for the large amount of work 



17 



in keeping these small accounts. One hundred seventy -three indi- 
vidual bank books were issued in January. 

This enterprise comes well within the province of school work. . The 
whole object of public schools, briefly stated, is to make good citi- 
zens. Financial economy is certainly one of the chief requisites for 
the good citizen; and, beside this, many other good habits are culti- 
vated by our system. It is believed that undue miserliness or stingi- 
ness will not be fostered by the system, but rather the reverse. A 
word of caution to parents and friends is, however, needed here. 
For the best educational results to be procured, each sum of money 
deposited should represent gome genuine effort or self-sacrifice on the 
part of the child. We are willing to receive sums given, but that is 
not the main purpose. An excellent plan suggested to parents is to 
allow fixed pay for duties that children are accustomed to perform, 
and thus to make it possible for them to save money actually earned. 

EVENING SCHOOL. 

As an experiment, the committee voted to allow the Superintend- 
ent to maintain an evening school for twelve weeks during the past 
winter at a cost not to exceed $125. The expense has been kept well 
within that amount. The whole number of pupils registered was 66. 
Largest attendance, 43. Smallest attendance, (a very stormy night), 
7. Average attendance for the twenty-four evenings, 22. This is 
comparatively a good showing. The experiment must be regarded 
as a success, notwithstanding the fact that we Can see ways in which 
much more could be done anotner year. About fifteen attended 
regularly from first to last. These were largely persons of mature 
age and a fair degree of advancement. Enough good was undoubt- 
edly done them more than to pay for the expense of the school. If a 
sum of $200 should be appropriated for the purpose, we could have a 
longer term next winter, and we should expect to be able to add a 
class of pupils of less attainments and of greater need, and to keep a 
much larger number in regular attendance for the whole term. 

"district" schools. 

What to do for the children living in thinly settled regions outside 
of the village is a question causing much trouble to the committees 
of this and other towns. The law bringing all the schools under one 
control and one expense account, was in the right direction. Still it 



IS 



is impracticable to give such pupils, near their own homes, all the 
advantages of the village schools. Indeed, it is usually impossible to 
make a good school, with a healthy spirit of enthusiasm and emula- 
tion, where there are less than a dozen members, and they of 
very diverse attainments. True, the history of the country shows 
that a large proportion of our successful men of New England came 
from rural homes, but it is scarcely a question if the foundation of 
their eminent success was not laid in the strong, bracing country air, 
rather than in the poor schools. If the children can be carried to 
the village and then back to their homes, they will have the double 
advantage. Many towns have tried this plan, and before long nearly 
all will do so. Last summer school No. 2 was closed and the pupils 
have been transported to the centre. The children are certainly 
better cared for, and the town has saved about $200, which can profit- 
ably be spent for general purposes. There are still five outlying 
schools. Their total membership at present is 6$. N From nearly or 
quite every one, parents have asked the privilege of sending children 
to town. One of these schools now numbers only 7; another, 8. 
To support such a school costs nearly twice as much as it would to 
transport the pupils to the village and there give them far better ad- 
vantages. The matter deserves the serious attention of the Com- 
mittee, and it would be a help if the judgment of the town could be 
obtained. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION. 

The balancing of requirements in these two respects presents a very 
difficult problem. Common physical comfort and safety demands 
that the temperature be not much below 68°, although Boston places 
the requirement 68°. ** Mental economy demands that where persons 
are studying, the thermometer should not be allowed to rise much above 
72°. Both physical health and mental economy demand a large and 
constant supply of pure air. The Phillips street building is the only 
school-house in town with even a respectable provision for artificial 
ventilation. To put any adequate system of ventilation into all the 
buildings would require a very large outlay of money. It is neces- 
sary for teachers, by opening the doors and windows at recess, to let 
in a fresh supply, and also, during the session, to allow as much fresh 
air in as is safe to come through one or more windows, always guard- 
ing against draughts over pupils' heads. » This requires extra heating 
facilities and an intelligent and constant watchfulness. During the 



19 



last week of the fall term and the whole of the winter term a record 
of the temperature in every room has been made three times a day. 
These records will be at the Superintendent's office, and may be con- 
sulted by any one interested. The week beginning December 5 was 
very cold, and may be taken as a fair sample. The temperature in 
the different schools at 9, 12 and 3.30 o'clock varied from 23° to 85°. 
The very low cases were in the outside schools, and were evidently 
due to irresponsible janitor service. However, in those cases the 
condition is not so bad as it looks, because, the schools being small, 
the pupils can gather about the stove. The highest temperatures are 
found in the High School building. There the incomplete furnace 
arrangement seems to make it impossible, when one room is comfort- ; 
ably warm, to keep all the rooms always sufficiently cool ; but it does/ 
seem as if greater care on the part of janitor and teachers might have 
prevented such an unbearable degree of heat as 85°. The eight 
schools on Phillips and Grove streets show, on the whole, the most 
even temperature. These three buildings are heated by steam from 
one boiler, which in cold weather has to be forced, and is so poorly 
arranged as to make it impossible to heat certain rooms without a 
great waste of fuel and labor. The Sub-Grammar and the High 
Street buildings are furnished with one coal stove in each room, and 
with special care can usually be well regulated, although in severe 
weather the corners cannot be kept warm. To sum up the situation, 
it appears that the unsatisfactory condition of heat and ventilation 
could be improved, first, by a large outlay of money in the line of 
facilities; second, by improved work by some of the janitors; third, 
by greater care by some of the teachers. It may not be out of place 
for me to state here the belief that the work of the janitor of the 
village schools averages fully as good as could reasonably be expected 
under the circumstances. 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. 

In regard to general management, the schools of Westborough are 
in excellent condition. The fact that there have been no serious cases 
of discipline in the town during the year, and that everything has 
run almost without friction, speaks volumes for the character of 
teachers, pupils and parents. Public sentiment in the town seems 
strongly in favor of order and harmony in all school matters. Occa - 
sionally a tendency to over-abundant mischief or an indisposition 



20 



to do the best work in his power shows itself in some pupil. 
This is usually squelched at its first appearance. During the 
spring and fall terms there were reported thirty -seven cases 
of corporal punishment, counting every instance of physical force 
used on a pupil. This does not seem an immoderate use of the rod. 
There are occasions when a shaking or a rattanning works wonders 
for a boy. Still, as a rule, the best teachers are exceedingly slow to 
use this means of discipline. The rule requiring every such occur- 
rence to be reported immediately in detail to the Superintendent's 
office is calculated to check any teacher who might possibly have a 
tendency to be hasty. Whenever a pupil shows an unconquerable 
evil disposition, and becomes a demoralizing influence in the school, 
the public good requires that he be removed. There have been in the 
past year three cases of suspension by teachers. In two of these 
cases the parents immediately brought the boys up to their duty. In 
any case of trouble or misunderstanding the value of a conference 
between parents and teachers or Superintendent can hardly be over- 
estimated. All desire the same general end, and when all understand 
one another's methods, and work together, good results will be sure 
to follow. All parents are earnestly requested to become acquainted 
with the teachers of their children, and, so far as they can, to show 
their interest by visiting the schools. 

SPECIAL TEACHERS. 

The special teacher of drawing and the director of music are get- 
ting excellent results. They are both thoroughly competent, are hard 
workers, and have the confidence of the teachers and the good-will 
of the pupils in admirable degree. Attention is directed to Miss Ma- 
honey's outline course of study in art, and to Mr. Misener's state- 
ment of the objects of musical training in the public schools. 

The above, together with the table of statistics on 
the following pages, and the Course of Studies, is re- 
spectfully submitted for your approval. 

TEUE W. WHITE, 

Superintendent of Schools. 

Westborough, Feb. 11, 1893. 



21 



SCHOOL STATISTICS. 



SCHOOL. 


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60 


58 


262 


56 


96 


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3 




s. 


16 


6 


55 


50 


282 


48 


96 


30 


8 


11 




F. 


16 




62 


61 


168 


60 


98 


34 


13 


130 


GRADE IX 


W. 


15 


4 


* 


















s. 


15 


6 


39 


37 


259 


34 


91 


1 


5 


54 




F. 


14 




41 


38 


171 


37 


97 


'2 


5 


32 


ORADE VIII 


W. 


13 


9 


40 


38 


140 


37 


92 


3 


_ 


5 




s. 


14 




40 


39 


157 


38 


97 


1 


5 


13 




F. 


13 


7 


48 


46 


141 


45 


98 


6 


5 


25 


GRADE VII 


W. 


13 




49 


47 


387 


43 


92 


7 


_ 


7 




s. 


13 


3 


47 


46 


223 


44 


96 


2 


4 


7 




F. 


13 


5 


58 


53 


219 


52 


98 


12 


7 


42 


GRADE VI 


W. 


12 




49 


48 


328 


44 


92 


3 


_ 


1 




s. 


12 




47 


46 


185 


45 


98 


3 


4 


3 




F. 


11 


6 


53 


53 


385 


50 


94 


6 


9 


8 


GRADE V 


W. 

s. 


10 
11 


11 


39 

38 


38 
37 


440 
147 


35 
36 


92 

97 


4 
2 


3 


7 


Grove St. 


15 




F. 


11 


1 


44 


40 


210 


39 


97 


12 


8 


19 


GRADE V 


W. 

s. 


11 
11 


6 

8 


40 
38 


38 

38 


300 
212 


35 

36 


92 
95 


41 

1 


7 


19 


Phillips St. 


23 




F. 


11 


10 


47 


39 


300 


38 


97 


4 


8 


30 


GRADE IV 


W. 


10 


4 


49 


47 


273 


44 


94 


3 




60 




s. 


10 


11 


51 


50 


129 


49 


98 


4 


6 


71 




F. 


10 


2 


48 


48 


98 


47 


98 


3 


5 


106 


GRADES III & IV. 


W. 


10 


2 


36 


35 


244 


34 


97 


11 




11 




s. 


10 


6 


36 


35 


143 


34 


97 


6 


8 


20 




F. 


9 


6 


36 


33 


192 


32 


97 


23 


6 


7 


GRADE III 


W. 


9 


4 


42 


40 


180 


38 


95 


4 


_ 


14 




s. 


9 


6 


46 


45 


139 


44 


98 


1 


6 


56 




F. 


9 


8 


51 


46 


150 


45 


98 


6 


8 


49 



Register cannot be found. 



22 



SCHOOL STATISTICS. — ( Concluded. ) 



SCHOOL. 


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GRADE II 


W. 

s. 

F. 


Y. 

7 
8 

7 


M. 

6 
6 


46 
43 

42 


46 
42 
40 


704 

185 
263 


39 

40 

38 


85 
96 
96 


2 


10 


6 
5 


4 

8 

26 


GRxiDE I 


W. 

s. 

F. 


6 
5 
6 


1 
10 

4 


32 
41 
41 


26 
40 

38 


502 
269 
451 


20 
37 
36 


77 
92 
95 


4 
6 

22 


5 

8 


9 


Up stairs. 


12 
20 


GRADE 1 


W. 

s. 

F. 


6 
6 
5 


5 
3 
6 


33 

45 
44 


29 
40 
39 


637 

328 
508 


22 

37 
35 


76 
93 
90 


3 

10 
18 


4 
5 





Down stairs. 


10 
15 


GRADES I & 11 . . 


W. 

s. 

F. 


7 
7 
6 


7 


39 

45 
37 


36 

44 
34 


441 
331 
262 


31 
41 
32 


86 
93 
94 


9 

18 
21 


5 

7 


9 
22 

21 


DISTRICT NO. 2.. 


W. 

s. 

F. 


9 
9 

* 


6 

7 


14 
8 


12 

8 


118 

70 


11 

7 


90 
95 


22 
• 2 


6 



5 


DISTRICT NO. 3.. 


W. 

s. 

F. 


10 
9 

8 


4 
4 
1 


13 

18 
11 


12 
17 
10 


159 

144 
202 


10 

16 

9 


83 
94 
90 


11 
3 

47 


5 
5 


1 

10 

6 


DISTRICTS NOS. 4 
and 5. 


W. 

s. 

F. 


9 

9 
9 


9 
11 
10 


26 

28 
. 28 


25 
24 
23 


228 
209 
210 


22 
22 
21 


88 
92 
92 




6 

12 


4 
5 


1 
4 
2 


DISTRICT NO. 6.. 


W. 

S. 

F. 


9 

9 

11 




16 
12 
11 


10 

11 

9 


151 
131 
136 


8 
10 

8 


80 
90 
90 


4 
12 

15 


4 
5 


2 

3 

13 


DISTRICT NO. 7.. 


W. 

s. 

F. 


10 

11 

9 




19 
20 
16 


15 
19 

15 


329 

220 
181 


11 
17 
14 


74 
90 
93 


8 
5 

7 


5 

6 


6 
9 
6 


DISTRICT NO. 8.. 


W. 

s. 

F. 


9 
9 
9 


5 
3 
3 


14 
14 
16 


13 
11 
13 


243 
268 
190 


10 

9 

12 


80 
82 
92 


11 

2 

10 


3 

6 


7 
12 
17 


+ TOTAL . . . , , 


W. 

s. 

F. 


10 
10 
10 


4 
5 

4 


661 
711 
734 


613 

690 
693 


6096 
4031 
4437 


550 
644 
650 


87 
93 
94 


174 
115 
270 


103 
126 


220 
368 
576 



* Closed! Pupils brought to village. t Not including Grade IX for winter term. 



23 



Insfructi 



usicoi insirucnon 



To the Superintendent of Schools : 

In submitting, at your request, a report on the subject of musical 
instruction in the schools of Westborough, it may not be amiss for 
me to outline briefly the results which we are endeavoring to obtain, 
and which, in time, may reasonably be expected. 

It is believed that no method of musical instruction in public schools 
should be regarded worthy of commendation, by either the educator 
or practical musician, which does not, at every stage of the work, 
lead directly to the attainment — on the part of the pupil — of a three- 
fold object, viz : the ability to read music readily at sight, the im- 
provement of the singing voice and a capability of rendering a musi- 
cal composition with expression. 

The development of these three departments must be in the order 
named. In practical teaching the ability of the pupil to read music 
readily at sight must receive the first consideration of the teacher at 
every lesson. When the mental faculties are employed in solving 
the problems relative to the pitch and length of sounds, compara- 
tively little can be done in the development of voice and expression. 

However important the growth and cultivation of the singing voice, 
it must in a measure be dependent on and subordinate to the ability 
to read music at sight. 

On the other hand, all possible attention should be given to the 
proper appreciation of musical tone and a free and natural use of 
the voice ; otherwise, physical injury to the vocal organs would be 
the result. 

When the pupil has gained the ability to grasp the form and mean- 
ing of a musical composition, and the voice has become pure and 
flexible to the extent of giving effective utterance to the thought con- 



24 



tained in the music, he must then be taught to sing with expression 
and feeling, without which his whole musical education is a failure, 
and any performance by a pupil whose education had ceased at this 
stage would be mechanical, lifeless and wholly uninteresting. 

Briefly, these are the results to be obtained through the study of 
music in the schools. It must not be inferred, however, that the dif 
ferent branches thus outlined or the methods employed in teaching 
them are in any way detached, but are so interwoven in each day's 
instruction that each becomes a part of the other, the proportion of 
each being governed by the progress of the pupil. 

Space will not permit an outline of the methods employed in gain- 
ing the desired object, but it is sufficient to say that the difficulties 
are so presented to the mind of the child that they are grasped and 
overcome by the use of his own mental powers, which will, in time,, 
make him independent of the teacher and capable at all times of 
doing individually whatever he can do in his class. 

I trust that the parents will find, in the future development of 
their children, abundant proof of the fact that the enjoyment which 
comes from intelligent contact with good music in the school-room 
and the home tends to the formation of character, and to added 
strength both mental and moral. 

It may not be out of place, in this connection, to express to you 
my appreciation of the support you have given me in my labors 
toward the elevation of the musical standard in the schools, and to 
the committee for the liberal policy which has been followed in re- 
gard to the supply of material for musical study. 

It gives me pleasure to testify to the efficiency and co-operation of 
the regular teachers in your schools. The interest manifested in the 
educational features of the work, and the intelligent manner of fol- 
lowing the methods of instruction in this study are above criticism, 
all of which tends to make the labors of the special teacher very 
pleasant. 

M. W. MISENER. 



25 



rawim 



\)er s I v 



eacner s 



spoi 



To the School Superintendent of Westborough : 

An effort has been made to realize for drawing its 
proper function in the school course. 

A natural method has been introduced, by which 
the student's faculties for realizing and accurately ex- 
pressing form are gradually developed. 

The course begins with the pupils as soon as they 
enter the lowest grade, and is continued through all 
the grades. The teachers are following the course 
faithfully, and are doing good and careful work. 

Respectfully, 

N. M. MAHONEY. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 



The pupil should express his idea of form in three ways — by lan- 
guage, modelling and drawing. 

The shapes of faces are to be represented by tablet laying, and 
edges by stick laying. 

The creative ability of the child is to be developed by giving exer- 
cises in simple arrangements and design. 

Continued attention must be given to pencil holding, movement 
and position. 

All drawings are to be made lightly at first ; all changes to be made 



26 



by drawing new lines. When the correct outline has been found — 
and not before — all incorrect lines should be erased. When the paper 
has been cleaned, line in the drawing. 

Strive to obtain broad, gray lines. 

All erasing should be done by the class at the same time. Never 
allow pupils to erase without permission. 

COURSE OF STUDY IN DRAWING. 

Grade I. 

Models — Sphere, Cube, Cylinder, Hemisphere, Square Prism, Right- 
Angled Triangular Prism, Circle, Square, Oblong, Semi- Circle. 

Right -Angled Triangle. 

Expression by modelling clay, drawing at board and on paper, 
pasting and sewing, 

Grade II. 

Models. — Ellipsoid, Oroid, Equilateral Triangular Prism, Cone, 
Square Pyramid, Vase form. Ellipse, Oval, Equilateral Triangle, 
Isosceles Triangle, Square. 

Objects. — Leaves, Fruit, Boxes, etc. 

Expression as in first year. 

Grade III 

Work of the first two years reviewed. 

Models. — Sphere, Hemisphere, Cube, Circle, Semi -Circle, Square. 

Objects. — Fruit, Leaves, Fans, Boxes, etc. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos. 1 and 2. 

The models and industrial objects are now studied with reference 
to the facts of their forms. The fruit and natural forms are studied 
with reference to their general outline. The plane geometric figures 
are used for making decorative arrangements, illustrating the prin- 
ciples of symmetry and repetition. These arrangements are then 

drawn. 

Grade IV. 

Models. — Cylinder, Square Prism, Vase form, Circle, Square, Ob- 
long. 
Objects. — Tumblers, Bowls, Boxes, Vegetables, Leaves, etc. 
Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos. 3 and 4 
Paper Cutting and Pattern Making. Geometric views of models 



27 



studied and drawn. Nature study. Vegetables, Leaves, etc. 
Decorative arrangements. 

Grade V. 

Models. — Ellipsoid, Oroid, Equilateral Triangular Prism, Cylinder, 
Ellipse, Oval, Triangles. 

Objects. — Rectangular and Cylindric objects. Fruits, Leaf and 
Flower forms. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos, 5 and 6. Additional work 
on paper. Paper Cutting and Pattern Making. Facts of Form in 
three views of models. Study of objects as wholes. Foreshorten- 
ing of Surfaces in Cylindrical objects. 

Nature Study. Grouping 

Plant Growth. Moorish Ornament. 

Conventionalized Flower Forms for Borders and Rosettes, 

Grade VI 

Models. — Cube, Cylinder, Cone, Square Prism, 

Objects. — Cubical, Cylindrical and Conical Objects and Vases; 
Plant Forms; Historic Ornament. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos. 7 and 8. 

Additional work on paper. Patterns for Cones and Conical Ob- 
jects. Constructive Design. 

Facts of Form. — Models and Objects single and combined. 

Appearance of Cylindric, Rectangular and Conical Models; Con- 
vergence of lines. 

Nature Study. — Plant Growth, Gothic Ornament. 

Conventionalized Leaf Forms for Rosettes and Surface Covering. 

Grade VII. 

Models. — Cube, Square Pyramid, Square Plinth, Various Prisms. 

Objects. — Writing Desks, Books, Boxes, etc. Plant Forms. His- 
toric Ornament. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series No. 9 and 10. 

Additional work on paper. 

Patterns for Models and Objects. Facts of Form for Working 
Drawings, Free Hand. Appearance of Form. Objects turned at 45". 

Nature Study.— Plant Growth. Gothic Ornament; Original Ar- 
rangements for Panels and Borders. 



28 

Grade VIII. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos. 11 and 12. 

Additional work on paper. 

Working Drawings, and Making in Cardboard. 

Study leaves and flowers. 

Plant analysis in connection with design. 

Historic Ornament. 

Grade IX. 

Prang's Complete Course, Series Nos. 13 and 14. 

Additional work on paper. 

Use of compasses. Essential Geometrial Problems. Application 
of Compass Work to Designing, Making in Cardboard. Drawing 
Natural Objects preparatory to Science Work in High School. 

Historic Ornament. 

Mechanical Drawing. 

Use of T Square, Triangles and Drawing Board. 

Review Working Drawings. 

Teach use of Scale. 

Working Drawing of common objects, pupils taking their own 
measurements. 

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE. 

First Year. 

Model Drawing reviewed. 

Pupils drawing at blackboard and on manilla paper until they out- 
line well. 

Use of charcoal, laying on planes, shading groups of geometric 
solids. 

Teach terms used in light and shade, high light, reflected light, in- 
termidate tones, cast shadow. 

Express three kinds of surface by shading large drawings ; cube, 
cylinder, sphere. 

Blocking from casts — two tones. 
Casts shaded in three tones. 
Outline plants in pencil. 
f Copied. 
DpmVn J Historic Ornament. 

1Jesign 1 Modern Example. 

[ Original. 



29 



Second Yeai . 



Applied 



Mechanical 



FYoofc*nri ( Light and Shade (charcoal.) 

ADDearance Grou P of White 0b J ects - 
Appearance. | Shading from Casts 

y. . j Lessons for Theory of Color. 

esi & n I Simple diagrams colored. 

r Prints. 

J Cup and Saucer. 
1 Book Covers. 

[ Above worked in color. 

( Building Construction, 

■| Joints, Doors, Windows, etc. 

( Sections of same. 

( Post, Doors with Panels, 
Applied . . . < Escutcheons, Door Knobs, 
( Keys, etc. 

Projections. / 

Development of Surfaces and Flat Tinting. 

Third Year. 

{Appearance. 
Light and Shade. 
Colored Objects 
Groups including white and colored objects. 

Monochrome. Sepia. 

( Tiled Floor. 

Design -j Frieze, mounted on cartridge paper, 

( Worked in color. 

Fourth Year. 



Flowers, Fruit and Vegetables in Water Color. 
Out-door Sketching. 
Cast Drawings. 
Details of Machinery. 



30 



bourse of ©3tud 



les, 



ARITHMETIC. 

The first and constant aim in arithmetic is power to 
solve, quickly and accurately, practical, every-day 
problems in number. The attainment of this power 
will necessarily be attended by mental discipline. 
Teachers will do well to teach the art rather than the 
science of numbers ; to give many short examples and 
problems, rather than few long or puzzling ones ; to 
teach always the most abbreviated methods of solu- 
tion, and to require only simple explanations. A good 
way to take up a new principle is for the teacher to 
perform one or two simple examples at the board, ac- 
companied by a very clear explanation of every step, 
drawn from the class if possible ; then, with all or a 
part of the pupils at the board, to give a series of brisk 
exercises of the same general nature, increasing grad- 
ually in difficulty. Every teacher should be familiar 
with the work and methods of preceding grades, and 
should give one or two short review questions each 
day. Mental examples should immediately precede 
written ones, and this must be continued throughout the 
course ; Colburn's or Bailey's book may be used, and 
the teacher should give original problems also. 

Grade I. 
Numbers to and including ten. All combinations not involving 



31 



any number larger than ten. Figures to 10. Signs, +, — , X, 4-, =, 
Fractions, 3^, %, M- Coins to and including dimes. Wentworth's 
Primary Arithmetic to Chapter III. 

NOTE.— During first two years, teach all numbers at first concretely with various 
objects. Then make the child remember what he has found out from the objects. 

Grade II. 

Learn all combinations to and including twenty. Roman numerals 
to XX. Dozen, Score, Inch, Foot, Yard, Gill, Pint, Quart, Gallon. 
Read and write numbers to 1000. Fractions to and including eighths. 
Add, Subtract, Multiply and Divide, examples to 1000, without "car- 
rying" or "borrowing." Wentworth's Primary Arithmetic to Chap- 
ter V. 

Grade III. 

Learn multiplication to 10 x 10. Have pupils able to make readily 
mental combinations to 100. Read and write numbers to 1,000,000. 
Addition, not more than four numbers. Subtraction, Multiplication 
and Division, no multiplier or divisor larger than 10. Roman 
numerals to M. All coins. Square foot and sq. yd. Seconds, Min- 
utes, Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years. Fractions to twelfths. 
Wentworth's Primary Arithmetic to Chapter VII. 

Grade IV. 

Learn multiplication tto 12 x 12. Have pupils able to make readily 
mental combinations to 144. Read and write to 1,000,000,000. Add, 
Subtract, Multiply, Divide. Decimals to hundredths. Percentage 
(simple examples). Practical measurements. Wenthwortlrs Prim- 
ary Arithmetic completed and examples in "four rules" taken from 
larger book. 

Grade V. 

Fractoring (simple), Common Fractions, Decimals. 

Grade VI. 

Money, Weights and Measures. All Compound Measures. The 
Metric System. Make bills and receipts. 

Grade VII. 

Longitude and Time. Mensuration of rectangles and rectangular 



32 



solids. Percentage, Profit and Loss, Insurance, Commission and 
Brokerage, Taxes. Teach use of Dr. and Cr., and have pupils make 
simple ledger accounts between two persons, the transactions being 
stated by the teacher. 

Grade VIII. 

Interest (by one method). Easy examples in Partial Payments, 
Exchange, Ratio and Proportion, Mensuration of triangles, circles 
and cylinders. Continue practice with ledger, and have pupils keep 
individual cash accounts. 

Grade IX. 

Partnership, Banking, Business forms, Square Rodt, Cube Root 
(by trial only), Mensuration, Review. Single entry Book-keeping 
optional with Latin. 

PHYSICAL CULTURE. 



Beside the out-of-door exercises, brief periods shall 
be taken for relaxation from study and physical exer- 
cise. This may be such as marching, or calisthenic 
drill especially as directed in the ' 'Progressive Days'" 
Order Book." At such times, as well as during the 
regular recess, the room must be ventilated as thor- 
oughly as the temperature allows. 

One of the most important duties of teachers is to 
see that pupils sit and stand erect, and walk in an easy, 
graceful manner. Especially should the eyesight be 
guarded, and at the first indication of near-sightedness 
or^ other trouble with the eyes, the parents or the Su- 
9 Aperintendent should be consulted. 



HYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. 

During each year every teacher will give appropri- 



33 



ate instruction in cleanliness, use of clothing, position 
of .body, exercise, pure air, arrangement of light, 
temperance in eating and drinking, effects of narcot- 
ics and alcoholic drinks. 

More definite and thorough instruction will be based 
on the following outline. Each year's work includes 
• a review of all preceding work. All lessons must be 
developed from the children so far as possible. 

In preparation, teachers 1 ., may use whatever books 
they have, but the several parts of "Practical Work 
in the School Room" will indicate the amount and the 
general plan of the work required. Be very careful 
to teach only such facts as are indisputably true. 

Grade I. 

The Body as a whole and its prominent parts. Importance of car- 
ing for it. Position in sitting, walking, etc. Dry feet. (Part I. of 
"Practical Work in the School Room.") 

Grade II. 
The Limbs. The Skin and its care. (Parts II. (in part) and III.) 

Grade III 
Tli£ Bones and the Joints — care of. (Parts II. (in part) III. and V. ) 

Grade IV. 
The Organs of Sense, and their use and care. (Part IV.) 

Grade V. 

The Muscles. The Heart. Blood and the Circulation. (Parts IV. 
and VIII.) * 

Grade VI. 

The Lungs and Respiration. Composition of Pure Air. Poisonous 
Gases. (Part IX.) 



34 



Grade VII. 

The Digestive Organs. Food. The Teeth. Poisons and Antidotes. 
Selections from 'Health Lessons" for Sup. Reading. (Part X.) 

Grade VIII. 

The Nervous System. The Brain. Diseases of the Nerves and 
Brain. Will Power. (Part XL) 

Grade IX. 
Text book on Elementary Physiology and Hygiene. 

High School. 
A lecture or recitation each week. 

NATURAL SCIENCE. 

For the first eight years about one hour a week is to 
be given to this subject, which is to include the divi- 
sions, Botany, Zoology, and Mineralogy. The objects 
are : 

1. To cultivate power of observing. 

2. To cultivate power of expressing. 

3. To acquire useful knowledge. 

4. To cultivate interest in nature, such as will re- 
sult in love for the beautiful, kindness to living crea- 
tures, and reverence for the creator. 

The teaching must, therefore, take the form of en- 
couraging the pupils to voluntary and original work, 
wdth very little direct instruction. 

Teachers will follow their own taste or judgment in 
determining the hue of work for each term or year, 
and are referred for suggestions to the remarks under 



35 



* 'Nature Studies" in the "Course of Studies, " recently 
published by the State Board of Education. 

Grade IX. 

Two terms' work in one or two divisions of Natural Science. This, 
with a term's work in Book -Keeping, is optional with the pupils, the 
alternative being a year's work in Latin. 

WRITING. 

Throughout the course teachers must see that pu- 
pils, in all writing exercises, keep the best position that 
they know, and use due care. This last means that 
they should write neither hurriedly nor very slowly. 
We want legible, easy, rapid writing. 

Grade I. 

Copying on board and slate of easy sentences from board and book. 
Special drill on single "small" letters. 

Note.— Teachers should now judge a pupil's progress not so much by results us 
by his methods. 

Grade II. 

Copying from board and books on practice paper with pencil. 
Special study of small letters and capitals. 

Grade III 
Pen and ink. 

Normal Review Course movement tablet and copy book No. 1. 
Note.— Insist on correct position and movement always, throughout the course. 

Grades IV. to IX. 
Normal Review Course tablet No. 2, and copy books. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

Grade I. 
Talks on the Cardinal Points of the Compass, the Sky, Rain, 



36 

Clouds, Sunrise, Sun at Noon, etc. Pupils draw diagrams, showing 
relative positions of objects. 

Grade II. 

Talks on Semi-cardinal Points, Seasons, Hills, Valleys, Mountains, 
Springs, Brooks, Rivers, Ponds, Kinds of Land (as fertile, pasture, 
woodland, etc.) Draw plan of school-room and furniture, from 
measurements, on a fixed scale, as 1 inch to the yard. 

Grade III. 

Continue talks on Geographical names as above, illustrating by 
sand-modelling. General shape of the earth. Principal town offi- 
cers. Draw maps to a scale (as 1 inch to the rod, or 1 foot to the mile) 
from measurements. Maps of School-yard, Neighborhood, Town. 

Grade IV. 

Draw map of Massachusetts. Map-drawing and modelling contin- 
ued throughout the course. Study of globes and maps. Day and 
Night. Latitude and Longitude. The Hemispheres and Continents. 
United States — the states learned in groups, a few cities and other 
most important features and facts. Outlines of state government. 
Elementary text-book for reference. 

Grade V. 

Study all the continents, with the important countries, cities, riv- 
ers, mountains, etc. , of each. Kinds of national governments. Re- 
view outline geography of the United States, especially of Massa- 
chusetts. Simple Physcial Geography. 

Note.— In all grades the text-book should be used simply as one reference-book. 
Neither pupils nor teachers should think it important to commit to memory all in 
the book, and, on the other hand, much outside information should be brought in 
from various sources. 

Grade VI. 

Butler's Complete Geography to South America. Mathematical, 
Physical and Political Geography. Geography of the United States, 
taken topically, in groups and separately. Government of U. S. and 
of Mass. British America. 

Note.— Beginning with the 6th grade, Geography should aim, not so much to 
teach mere additional facts, but rather to get at the causes, relations and philoso- 
phy of things. 



37 



Grade VII. 

Geography of the rest of the world, topically. Representative 
national governments. Thorough study of Massachusetts. 

Grade VIII. 

Mathematical, Physical, and Political Geography reviewed. 
Geography of United States, especially of New England, reviewed 
as may he deemed essential. 

HISTORY. 

Grades I. to V. 

Throughout the course it is the duty of the teachers to use every 
•convenient means to impress children with a patriotic love of their 
country. By anniversary exercises, by stories told by the teachers, 
and, later on, by judicious selections for supplementary reading, and 
by written exercises, pupils may also be brought to have a taste for 
historical reading and study, which will be very valuable. 

Grade VI. 

Selections from Goodrich's Child's History of United States as 
•Supplementary Reading. 

Grade VII. 

Montgomery's Beginner's American History as Supplementary 
Reading. 

Grade VIII 

United States History to Adoption of Constitution. 

Learn 1st, 2d and last sections of Declaration of Independence, 
and Preamble to Constitution. Recitations chiefly by topics. Prepara- 
tion from more than one book. 

Note.— Pass lightly over Battles and details of Campaigns. Study the causes, 
cost and results of wars, the growth of the country, the causes of the growth, and 
development of Liberty. Encourage varied and independent research. 

Grade IX. 

United States History to the present time. Study of the Constitu- 
tion. The Essentials of Civil Gonvernment. 



38 



READING. 

"Good reading is the key to good scholarship." If 
reading is tvell taught in all the schools, poor work can 
hardly be done in any subject. In teaching reading 
the following ends are to be aimed at: 

1st. Ability to get the meaning of the writer. This 
is the first object in all grades. It may be cultivated 
by frequently requiring oral, and, later, written repro- 
ductions, without the book. Also, by encouraging 
original thoughts suggested by the reading. 

2d. Ability to render printed thought effectively 
and agreeably. To this end, throughout the course 
cultivate correct pronunciation and smooth and agree- 
able tones. 

Give frequent drill in phonics and vocal exercises. 

3d. Valuable information. This may be supple- 
mentary to History, Geography, Natural Science, etc. 

4th. A taste for the Good and Beautiful in Litera- 
ture. 

' 'It is possible for the enthusiastic teacher to so clothe 

an exercise in reading with interest that the author's 

meaning shall be reflected in the pupil's faces and 

clearly portrayed by their emphasis and inflection." 

Grade I. 

Insist on reading being natural, and by sentences, not by single 
words. In first half year teach from board and chart about three 
hundred words, as given in E. H. Davis' First Reader, teachers' edi- 
tion. During year, read seventy pages of Davis' First Reader. Also 
seventy pages of several others, as Interstate, Holmes' Normal Re 
view, Sheldon's Modern. Phonics — Simple consonant, and long and 
short vowel sounds. 



39 



Grade II. 

Finish first Readers, and read half of several second Readers, as 
Monroe's, Swinton's, Sheldon's, Lippincott's, etc. Hold book in one 
hand, at least 12 inches from eyes. Mostly sight reading during first 
four years. Phonics. Commonest diacritical marks, with sounds, 
following Worcester's dictionary. 

Grade III. 

Ordinary diacritical marks. Finish Second Readers. One half of 
Normal Third Reader. Supplementary reading as time allows. 

Grade IV. 

Review diacritical marks. Teach use of Dictionary. New Normal 
and Swinton's Third Readers. Supplementary reading. 

Grade V. 

Frequent use of Dictionary throughout the course. Monroe's and 
Lippincott's Third Readers. Supplementary reading. 

Grade VI. 

Monroe's Fourth Reader for drill. Child's History of America 
and other supplementary reading. 

Grade VII. 

Swinton's Fourth Reader for drill. Montgomery's Beginner's 
History and other supplementary reading. 

Grade VIII 

Monroe's Fifth Reader for drill. Supplementary reading. 

Grade IX. 

Swinton's Fifth Reader for drill. Supplementary reading. 

SPELLING, 

Pupils are to have as much drill as time permits on 
common words from various sources. They should be 
taught the habit of noticing the spelling of all words 



40 



found in any reading. In every written exercise let 
no error in spelling pass uncorrected, and if possible 
prevent errors being made. In special spelling lessons 
follow carefully the suggestions given in Harrington's 
Speller. In the early grades teach pupils to sound the 
words phonically; thus only irregularly spelt words 
will have to be learned. 

Grade II. — Harrington — First 35 lessons. 



III.— 


— First 85 lessons. 


IV.— 


— First 136 lessons. 


. v.— 


—Finish Part I. 


vr.— 


— Part II. — 66 lessons*. 


VII.— 


— Part II. — 134 lessons. 


rai— 


—Part II.— 205 lessons. 


IX.— 


—Finish Part II. (Omit pp. 89-90.) 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

The aim of the course in Language is, to cultivate 
in the pupils the ability (a) to .spell and write, (1) eas- 
ily, (2) correctly, (3) forcibly, (4) pleasingly; (b) to 
understand correctly and to appreciate good language. 
It is taught incidentally by example and by judicious 
criticism, in every school exercise; it is also taught as 
a special and most important subject. The following 
outline and the books indicated furnish a mere skele- 
ton, which is to be richly filled out, especially in the 
Hue of genuine, practical expression of thought. Omit 
ingenious tricks with given words; the word should 
come as the sign of the pre-existing idea. In this 
subject especially, every grade is responsible for all pre- 
vious grades' work. In all dictation exercises, avoid 
repetition; have perfect attention before beginning. 



41 



So far as possible, keep only correct forms before the 
children. Train pupils early to correct their own and 
their fellow-pupils' errors, using marks suggested by 
Southworth and Groddard. Teach memory gems 
throughout the course. During first seven years, use 
terms like noun, sentence, subject, just as other conve- 
nient words are used, but teach no technical grammar 
as such. 

Grade I. 

Encourage the children to talk freely and confidently. Oral repro- 
duction of short stories. Copying of short written sentences from 
board and reader. Learn to write own name and address. 



H ^. 



Note. — Slates for this grade should be ruled regularly 
with lines 34 in - and J^ in. apart. In following grades paper 
is better for writing. i^ in. 



H in. 



Grade II. 

Oral reproduction of reading lessons, continued throughout the 
course. Copying of short sentences, and same from dictation, daily. 
Teach use of capitals for names of persons, towns, streets, days of 
week, months. Period. Question mark. Miss, Mr., Mrs. Initial 
letters in names. 

Grade III 

Oral stories and descriptions from pictures, etc., with previous ques- 
tions from teacher. Copying and dictation daily. Abbreviations. 
Quotation marks. Possessive forms. Simple letter-writing. South- 
worth & Goddard's First Lessons, to page 31. 

Grade IV. 
Narrative stories orally. Copying and dictation daily. Punctua- 



42 

tion. Paragraphs. Plural forms. Written reproductions, continued 
throughout the course. Letter- writing. 

S. & G. 's First Lessons, to page 82. 

Grade V. 

Copying or dictation daily. Oral and written story -telling, repro- 
ductions, etc. Letter-writing. Word forms. 

S. & G. 's First Lessons to end. 

Grade VI. 

Same as previous year, reviewed and extended. Narrative and de- 
scriptive writing from outlines. Bills and receipts. Synonyms stud- 
ied from the dictionary. Study selections as Literature. 

Grade VII. 

Copying or dictation daily. Narrative and descriptive writing 
from outlines. Study selections as Literature throughout the course. 
Synonyms. Paraphrasing. 

S. & G. 's Elements of Composition and Grammar to page 12. 

Grade VIII. 

Parsing and analysis of simple sentences. Language taught as in 
previous grades, and also with the application of rules of grammar. 

Grade IX. 

Parsing and analysis very thoroughly. Language as in previous 
grade. Common Figures of Rhetoric. Taste in choosing expressions. 



SCHEDULE OF SUBJECTS AND TIME. 

The following schedule suggests the approximate 
number of hours per week that should be devoted by 
the pupil to each subject. 

In the first three years, pupils may be dismissed 



43 



early one day a week. In the last three, they should 
do some home study. 



GRADE. 


I. 


II. 


in. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX 


Opening Exercises 

Music 


1 

4 
4 

A 
1 

m 

M 

a 

5 

% 

*A 


1 

i* 

i 

A 

±A 

% 

%A 


l 

5 

%A 

A 
l 

i& 

1M 
IK 

4^ 
% 

%A 


1 

1M 

5 
3 

1* 

4^ 

M 

2M 


1 
5 

A 
l 

1M 
1M 

*A 
2M 


1 
5 

%A 

l* 

1M 
iM 

4K 

A 

%A 


1 

1M 

5 

2 

1 

4^ 

M 

4^ 


1 

1M 

5 

2 

1* 

iM 

1M 
l 

5 

3 4 
5^ 


1 
5* 


Arithmetic 


Physical Culture 

Physiology and Hygiene 

Natural Science 

"W riting ... 


2 

iM 

5 
8 4 


Art 

Geography 

History 

Reading 


Spelling 


Language 


% 




TOTAL 


24M 


^A 


%m 


25 


25 


25 


26 


28 


80 







*2 hours for arithmetic, 3 for book-keeping. 



44 



Westborougr) MigQ 



900I 



Courses ok Study, 



1. 

ENGLISH COURSE. THREE YEARS. 

FIRST YEAR. 



FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 

> 


Algebra. 
General History. 
Commercial Arithmetic. 


Algebra. 

General History. g 

Book Keeping. 


Algebra. 
General History. 
Book Keeping. 



One Lesson a 


Week in English Composition. 
SECOND YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


Geometry. 
Physical Geography. 
Rhetoric. 


Geometry. 

Physics. 

Rhetoric. 


Geometry. 

Physics. 

Literature. 



THIRD YEAR. 



FIRST TERM> 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


* French. 

Civil Government. 

Literature. 


* French. • 

Astronomy or Reviews 
Literature. 


* French. 
Reviews. 
Literature. 



* German may be taken by a class instead of French under certain conditions. 
Exercises in Composition, Declamation, Music, Drawing, Spelling, 
Physiology, etc. , throughout the Course. 



45 



II. 

ENGLISH AND CLASSICAL COURSE. 
FOUR YEARS. 

FIRST YEAR. 



FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


Algebra. 

Latin. 

General History. 


Algebra. 

Latin. 

General History. 


Algebra, 

Latin. 

General History. 


One Lesson z 


i Week in English Composition. 
SECOND YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Civil Government. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Physics. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Physics. 


THIRD YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


* French. 

Latin. 

Rhetoric. 


* French. 

Latin. 

Rhetoric. 


* Frencn. 

Latin. 

Literature. 


FOURTH YEAR. 


FIR$T TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


* French. 

Latin. 

Literature. 


* French. 
Latin or Review. 
Literature. 


Review of Math- 
Latin. [ematics. 
Literature. 



*Or German. 



Exercises in Composition, Declamation, Music, Drawing, Spelling, 
Physiology, etc. , throughout the Course. 



46 



III. 

COLLEGE PREPARATORY COURSE. 

FOUR YEARS. 

FIRST YEAR. 



FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


Algebra. 

Latin. 

General History, 


Algebra. 

Latin. 

General History. 


Algebra. 

Latin. 

General History. 


One Lesson a 


l Week in English Composition. 
SECOND YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Greek. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Greek. 


Geometry. 

Latin. 

Greek. 


THIRD YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


* French or Rhetoric. 

Latin. 

Greek. 


* French or Rhetoric. 

Latin! 

Greek. 


*French or Litera- 
Latin. [ture. 
Greek. 


FOURTH YEAR. 


FIRST TERM. 


SECOND TERM. 


THIRD TERM. 


* French or Literature. 

Latin. 

Greek. 


* French or Literature. 
Latin or Review. 
Homer. 


Review of the 
Studies for Ad- 
mission to Col- 
lege. 



* Or German. 

Exercises in Composition, Declamation, Music, Drawing, Spelling, 
Physiology, etc., throughout the Course. 



47 



QnalisQ l\eadinas. 



Eequired in All Courses of the High School. 



FIRST YEAR. 

Longfellow, Evangeline and Tales of the Wayside Inn ; Whittier, 
Snow Bound; Bryant. Sella, The Little People of the Snow, and 
minor poems ; Holmes, Grandmother's Story of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill, and minor poems ; Tennyson, Enoch Arden ; Irving, The Legend 
of Sleepy Hollow. Rip Van Winkle; Hawthorne. The Snow Image, 
The Great Stone Face; Scott, Ivanhoe. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Longfellow, Courtship of Miles Standish, The Birds of Killing- 
worth, minor poems; Whittier, Mabel Martin, The Prophecy of Sam- 
uel Sewell, Maud Muller, minor poems ; Bryant, Thanatopsis, minor 
poems ; Holmes, One Hoss Shay, minor poems ; Lowell, Vision of Sir 
Launfal, A Legend of Brittany; Byron, the Prisoner of Chillon; 
Scott, The Lady of the Lake ; Holmes, The Gambrel Roofed House ; 
Irving, The Sketch Book; Lamb, Dissertation on Roast Pig; Scott, 
Kenil worth. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Longfellow, The Golden Legend, minor poems; Bryant, Forest 
Hymn, Planting of the Apple Tree, and other minor poems; Poe, The 
Raven, The Bells, minor poems ; Tennyson, Elaine, Ulysses, Locksley 
Hall ; Shelley, To a Skylark, Adonais ; Wordsworth, Ode on Intima- 
tions of Immortality, Tintern Abbey, minor poems; Coleridge, 
Ancient Mariner ; Burns, Cotter's Saturday Night, To a Mountain 
Daisy, A Man's a Man for a' That, Bonny Doon ; Goldsmith, Deserted 
Village ; Gray, The Elegy, Progress of Poesy ; Byron, selections from 
Childe Harold, minor poems; Dryden, MacFlecknoe, Alexander's 



48 



Feast; Emerson, Books, Heroism; Thackeray, English Humorists ;. 
Scott, Rob Roy ; Addison, selections from the Spectator Papers. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

The fourth year's work is the reading required for admission to the- 
colleges. 

For 1893 it will include the following : Shakespeare's Julius Caesar 
and Twelfth Night, Scott's Marmion, Longfellow's Courtship of Miles 
Stan dish, the Sir Roger de Coverley Papers in the Spectator, Macau - 
lay's second Essay on the Earl of Chatham, Emerson's American 
Scholar, Irving's Sketch Book, Scott's Ivanhoe, Dickens' David Cop- 
perfield. 

For 1894: Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and Merchant of Venice, 
Scott's Lady of the Lake, Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum; The Sir 
Roger de Coverley Papers in the Spectator, Macaulay's Second Essay 
on the Earl of Chatham, Emerson's American Scholar, Irving/a 
Sketch Book, Scott's Abbot, Dickens' David Copperfield. 



49 



pecia I I \ules for tr>e Miar) <^6cqooL 



Upon the entrance of pupils to the High School, parents are re 
quested to indicate which course they desire taken. 

Changes from one course to another will not be allowed except by 
special permission of the Superintendent. 

Each pupil shall have at least three regular studies at a time, un- 
less excused by the Superintendent. 

No pupil is entitled to pass on from one year's work to the other 
unless an average of sixty-five per cent, has been obtained. 

The Principal shall keep a permanent record of each pupil in the 
High School ; and no pupil shall be given a diploma until he has sat- 
isfactorily accomplished all the work prescribed in some one of the 



#